NAMeS

Native American Technologies
Weld Measuring Software
 
 

Users Guide



 Native American Technologies
1317 Washington Ave. Suite 1
Golden, CO 80401

Phone: (303) 279-7942
Fax: (303) 279-5286




NAMeS (Version 1.6)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. INTRODUCTION *

1.1 WELCOME TO NAMeS *

1.2 WHAT IS NAMeS *

1.3 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS *

II. GETTING STARTED * 2.1 INSTALLING NAMeS *

2.2 HOW NAMeS USES IMAGES AND DATA *

2.3 CREATING A PROJECT *

2.3.1 The Graphics Files Tab *

2.3.1.1 Changing a Directory *

2.3.1.2 Choosing and Selecting Files *

2.3.1.3 Video Capture Options *

2.3.2 The Data Directory Location Tab * 2.3.2.1 Changing the Current Save and Load Directory *

2.3.2.2 Using the Short Cut Buttons *

2.3.3 The Weld Type Tab *

2.3.4 The Weld Settings Tab *

2.3.5 Changing Directories *

2.4 Using Video Capture in NAMeS *

2.5 USING EXISTING IMAGES AND DATA *

2.5.1 Organizing Data *

2.5.2 Starting with Existing Data *

2.5.3 Starting with Existing Weld Images *

III. USING THE MAIN WINDOW * 3.1 SAVING AND RESTORING PROJECTS *

3.1.1 Saving a Project *

3.1.2 Restoring a Project *

3.1.3 Recovering from Changed Directory Names *

3.1.4 Editing a Project *

3.2 ENTERING WELD DIMENSIONS *

3.3 REVERSING, FLIPPING, AND ROTATING THE WELD IMAGE *

3.4 MEASURING A WELD SET *

3.4.1 Switching Modes *

3.4.2 Switching Points *

3.4.3 Moving a Point *

3.4.4 Switching Special Modes and Choosing "No Weld" *

3.4.5 Selectively Displaying Weld Lines *

3.4.6 Using Zoom Windows *

3.4.7 Saving and Loading Weld Data *

3.4.8 Switching Welds *

3.4.9 Making Notes About a Weld *

3.4.10 Renaming a Weld *

3.5 Using the Custom Dimension Control *

3.6 USING THE WELD DIMENSION BOX *

3.7 ADVANCED MEASURING FEATURES *

3.7.1 Using the Universal Zoom Window *

3.7.2 Using the Point Description Window *

3.7.3 Using the Main Pop-Up Menu *

3.7.4 Using the Quick Placement Mode *

3.7.5 Using the Special Display Options *

3.7.5.1 Choosing New Repeat Rates *

3.7.5.2 Other Options *

3.7.5.3 Choosing Point Shape and Color *

IV. USING WELD IMAGES IN NAMES * 4.1 HOW THE TRUE IMAGE SCALE IS DETERMINED BY NAMeS *

4.2 SCALING FROM FEATURES ADDED TO AN IMAGE *

Appendix A: Answers to frequently asked questions *
 
 




 

I. INTRODUCTION




1.1 WELCOME TO NAMeS

The purpose of Native American Technologies Weld Measuring Software is to enable the user to measure objects such as welds, brazes, and electrical components. NAMeS was initially developed because conventional weld measurement methods were not accurate and the results were not reproducible. N. A. Technologies was using this information to "train" neural networks. Because the data was inaccurate and variable, the neural networks were also inaccurate. It was obvious that a new method for measuring the welds was needed.

NAMeS measures the weld by storing the shape of the weld bead. Using American Welding Society (AWS) standard definitions, key dimensions were then automatically calculated from the weld bead shape. Since the user is outlining the weld shape and no interpretations are needed, the measurements are both accurate and reproducible. When NAMeS measurement data was used to "train" neural networks, the networks were more accurate.

This measurement approach could be used in everyday applications such as Statistical Process Control (SPC) and monitoring of weld quality and as input for other modeling and engineering environment.

The following sections describe some of the key features of NAMeS and the system requirements to run NAMeS.
 
 
 
 

1.2 WHAT IS NAMeS

NAMeS software allows quick and accurate measurement of engineering dimensions. This software also gives rapid accurate descriptions of weld dimensions and allows the user to:

1.3 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

NAMeS has the following minimum system requirements:

The recommended system consists of the following: Note: To use the image capture abilities of the NAMeS software, a 640x480 video camera that works with a video capture card with a 32 bit Windows 95 driver that supports the Video For Windows standard at 640x480 resolution will be needed. (A capture card that allows "overlay" mode will allow the image to be updated on the screen smoothly, but the video card must support video "preview" at the same color depth as the overlay to actually capture the image the overlay shows. Preview mode typically updates at 2 to 6 frames-per-second.)
 
 



 

II. GETTING STARTED

This section will describe the steps taken to use NAMeS and begin to measure welds. The following sections will guide you through the installation of the software, describe the data NAMeS uses, and discuss the file formats and naming conventions. We will also give you recommendations for organizing your data and files and how to create a project. It is strongly recommended that you follow the recommendations in Section 2.3. Otherwise you could overwrite and lose valuable data.
 
 

2.1 INSTALLING NAMeS

To run the install program, follow these instructions:

    1. Insert the NAMeS installation CD-ROM.
    2. If you are installing a "Frame NAMeS" system, you will require the latest version of the OLE and MFC files to be on your computer before installing NAMeS. If you are NOT installing "Frame NAMeS", skip to 3.
2.a From the Windows 95 Start menu, choose "Run…". Where x is the drive letter of your CD-ROM, type "x:\MFCDLLs.exe" and press "OK".

2.b When prompted, reboot your computer.

3. From the Windows 95 Start menu, choose "Run…". Where x is the drive letter of your CD-ROM, type "x:\namessetup.exe" and press "OK". Follow the on screen instructions.

4. It is recommended that you leave the NAMeS program files where the installation software recommends placing them. Also, after any upgrades choose the default directory to ensure that the latest version of NAMeS is always used.

5. If the installation program installs DAO (Data Access Objects), the computer should not need to reboot your computer afterwards. If it does, you should run the installation again after rebooting and only install DAO.
 
 
 
 
 



 

2.2 HOW NAMeS USES IMAGES AND DATA

In order for a set of welds to be measured by NAMeS, a set of graphics files, one for each weld type, needs to be in a single directory. These graphics files can either be captured by NAMeS, or acquired by some other means, such as a scanner, and then placed in a directory where NAMeS can see them. Long file names are fully supported in NAMeS (beginning in Version 1.4), so the graphics files and the graphics directory can be given a meaningful descriptions.

NAMeS currently supports most PCX, JPG, PNG, TGA, TIF (non-compressed), and BMP images. Jpeg images use "lossy compression" in order to save hard drive space. If high quality images are desired, it is best to use the BMP or PNG save formats. PNG images tend to be one quarter of the size of BMP images, but can be slow to save and load on some machines.

NAMeS saves all data in a second directory called the data directory. This data directory contains files that have identical names of the image files, except with a .DAT extension. For example, a graphics image file named "Cool Weld.PCX" would have a data file "Cool Weld.DAT". All measurement data for a weld is saved in its .DAT file.
 
 

NOTE: When moving a project to another computer, it is simplest if the graphics files (.PCX,.JPG, etc.), and .DAT files are located in identical directories on the new computer. For example, if all the files are located in E:\Project1\ on one computer and then you move the project to another computer, try to place the graphics and data files in the "E:\Project1\" directory also. For more information see section 3.1.3 Recovering from Changed Directory Names.
 
 
2.3 CREATING A PROJECT

This section of the manual will assume that you wish to capture the images that you will measure using the video capture capabilities of NAMeS. If you have existing images or data, first set up graphics and data directories as discussed in section USING EXISTING IMAGES AND DATA.

To begin using NAMeS the user will need to create a project. Click on the File Menu and choose New Project. The Project Control window will appear, as seen in Figure 1. This window has four "tabs": Graphics Files tab; Data Directory Location tab; Weld Type tab; and Weld Settings tab. These tabs are described in detail below. To switch between tabs, simply click on the tab you want. Once all project settings are chosen, press the OK button located at the bottom of the screen. If there are any problems, the tab that contains the error will be selected as the current tab. Press the Cancel button to leave the Project Control Window without making any changes to the program.
 
 
 
 
 
 

2.3.1 The Graphics Files Tab

This tab will allow the user to change the current graphics directory, enable video capture options, and select the graphics files to be measured. This is all displayed in Figure 2 below.
 
 

Figure 1 The project control window with the Graphics File Tab open.




2.3.1.1 Changing a Directory

The top box labeled Current Graphics Directory, displays where the graphics files are located and loaded into NAMeS (e.g. PCX, .PNG, .TIF, .BMP, or .JPG files). Also, any captured images will be saved into this directory. The graphics directory can be changed by clicking on the Browse… button (see section 2.3.1.1 Changing a Directory for more information). It is recommended that a different directory be chosen for each project that you measure. This will prevent two projects with similarly named welds, "Fillet 1" and "Fillet 1" for example, saving images and data over other projects.

Note: All captured images will be placed in this directory.
 
 

2.3.1.2 Choosing and Selecting Files

You can select the images you wish to measure by clicking on them with the mouse. Images that you have selected will be highlighted. To speed the process up you may select the Select All button. (See Figure 1 on Page *.) To deselect all of the files, press the Unselect All button. Clicking on a file will select or deselect it. If there are many files, a scroll bar will appear at the right side of the screen so that all of the files can be viewed.
 
 

2.3.1.3 Video Capture Options

NAMeS has the ability to "capture" images using an external camera. To enable these abilities, the Video Capture Mode must be turned ON. To do this select Capture Enable from the Video Capture Options box. (See Figure 1 on Page *.) By selecting the capture enable button you may toggle between Video Capture Mode ON and OFF. Having this box ON is the only way to create a project when starting without weld images. The images will be captured after the project is created.

Note: at this time either select a new tab, or if finished select the OK button at the bottom of the screen and a new project will be created.
 
 

2.3.2 The Data Directory Location Tab

Next select the Data Directory Location Tab from the Project Control Screen. A new screen will appear as shown in Figure 2 on page *. This tab allows the selection of two different directories, the save directory and the load directory. These are both data directories, the load directory is where measurement data are loaded from, and the save directory is where measurement data is saved to. Usually these should be the same directory, that way data is loaded and saved in the same location. Choosing a different directory for saving and loading data is one way to copy data without accidentally corrupting it. For example, bringing old data into a new version of NAMeS. If these directories are never changed, they should automatically match the "Graphics Directory" described in Section "2.3.1.1 Changing a Directory."
 
 

Figure 2 The "Data Directory Location" tab screen. This is where to select directories for saving and loading data.




2.3.2.1 Changing the Current Save and Load Directory

To change the Current Save Directory or the Current Load Directory, press the Change Directory button under the Directory you want to change. Then choose the desired directory as described in Section "2.3.5 Changing Directories." For the "Fillet Project" example in Figure 7 the save and load directory would be "D:\NAMeS\Fillet Project\Data".
 
 

2.3.2.2 Using the Short Cut Buttons

There are a total of four short cut buttons, two under the Save Directory, and two under the Load Directory.

The Current Save Directory box has the Copy Graphics Directory and the Copy Load Directory buttons. The Copy Graphics Path button will change the Current Save Directory to the same directory as the Graphics Directory. This would make the graphics and the save data have the exact same directory. This would be useful for storing the data and the graphics together. The Copy Load Path button would make the Current Save Directory the same as the Current Load Directory.

The Current Load Directory box has the Copy Graphics Directory and the Copy Save Directory buttons. The Copy Graphics Path button will change the Current Load Directory to the same directory of the Graphics Directory. This would make the graphics and the load data directory have the exact same directory. This would be useful for storing the data and graphics files together. The Copy Save Path button would have the Current Load Directory be the same as the Current Save Directory.
 
 

2.3.3 The Weld Type Tab

The Weld Type window is accessed by clicking on the third tab from the right labeled Weld Type. This screen is where the weld type is chosen. The Select Weld Type box displays a list of the possible weld types. To select the weld type, click on the type of weld being measured. Pressing the Reset button will restore the original weld type. (See Figure 3 on page *.) After selecting the weld type, be sure to check the "weld settings" before choosing "OK".
 
 

Figure 3 The "Weld Type" Tab which is used to choose the weld type being measured.






2.3.4 The Weld Settings Tab

The Weld Settings Tab allows different settings to be chosen for a weld type so that the weld model can describe the welds to be measured more completely. The Weld Setting tab is shown in Figure 4 on page *. For further information on selecting a weld type see Section "2.3.3 The Weld Type Tab".

Consider the following example. After performing a T-fillet weld, the plates are usually not exactly 90 degrees apart because of shrinkage of the weld bead after welding. If the amount of change in the angle between the welded plates is important, the "Measure angle between the plates?" can be toggled to YES. This will cause the angle between the plates to be one of the dimensions measured by NAMeS. However, if this angle is not important, choosing NO will cause NAMeS to skip the angle measurement and always assume a 90 degree angle between the plates.

Figure 4 The "Weld Settings" Tab is used to select settings for the weld model that match the type of weld being measured.

Any weld settings that are necessary to make measurements will be selected at the Weld Settings Tab. The Weld Setting Tab will display different parameters for each weld type. For example, a fillet weld may have two parameters, whereas a butt weld may have thirteen. If there are no weld parameters to select, the box will say so.

You may select a parameter to change by using the mouse and clicking on the parameter. When the parameter is highlighted it will also be displayed below the white box. However, below the white box, there will be either a check box or an input box next to the parameter.

How to Modify Weld Settings.

There are two techniques to changing a parameter. The first technique is to change the yes/no toggle box. The second technique is to edit the input boxes.

1. Yes/No Toggle box

The value can be changed by clicking in the check box, or by double clicking on the name of the setting. If the box is checked then YES is selected. If the box is empty then NO is selected. 2. Editing the Input Boxes. The numerical value questions will show a box next to the parameter. Using the mouse click the input box and type in the value. If the value is valid it will be shown in the large setting box, otherwise, the closest valid number will be shown.
 
 
 
 
 
2.3.5 Changing Directories

Figure 5 The "Choose Directory Window" used to choose directories.




The following steps explain how to select up the directory "c:\NAMeS Projects\Fillet Project" shown in Figure 5.

1. Select the drive from the drives box.

This will provide all available directories on the drive selected. For example, if the desired directory is on the "C:" drive, choose "[-C-]" from this box. 2. Select the directory where your images are located. Using "Fillet Project" as an example, choose the "C:\NAMeS Projects\Fillet Project" directory. This can be done by simply typing in the name of the directory in the Current Directory: box, or by clicking on the directory names in the "Directories:" box. (You would click on "NAMeS Projects" and then "Fillet Project", ".." goes to the next higher directory in the directory hierarchy). If you are selecting a directory that does not exist yet, you will need to type in the name.

To create a directory, simply type the names of the new directory into the Current Directory: box. For example, to make the directory "C:\NAMeS Projects\Fillet Project\ New" directory, first choose the "D:\NAMeS Projects\Fillet Project" directory then type "\New" onto the end of the directory name. When you click Select the directory will be created if it does not already exist.
 
 

Each time a directory is chosen, all files matching the File Filter will be shown in the Files in directory box. You may apply a filter to sort out specific files. For example, the images available could be .BMP files. By using the File Filter box you may type in an extension you wish to select (i.e. *.BMP.)

When finished choosing a directory, press the Select button.
 



 
 

2.4 Using Video Capture in NAMeS

The following section will describe how to use a video capture camera to produce images of your weld.

At this time the user should have NAMeS Software installed and a video capture card and camera installed and working on the computer. Do the following after starting NAMeS:

1. Choose New Project from the File Menu.

2. Select the directory path you wish to save the Images to.

To do this select the Browse button from the Graphics Files tab. The Choose a Directory Window will appear. Next, click on the drive you wish to save the images to. A list of available directories will be displayed. Next, click on the directory where you wish to store your images, a list of available subdirectories will be displayed. Finally, click on the subdirectory you wish the images to be in. To create a new directory, type the name of the directory to create. Press OK to go back to the Graphics Files tab. For more information, refer to Section "2.3.1 The Graphics Files Tab" starting on page *.

If there are any existing images to place in this project also, choose the directory where the existing .PCX files are, and the new images will be placed in the same directory.

3. Select the directory path you wish to store the data to. First, select the drive you wish to store the data in. Second, select the directory where you wish to store the data. Third, select the subdirectory. Continue until you have selected the full path where you would like your data stored. For more information, please read Section "2.3.2 The Data Directory Location Tab" starting on page *. 4. Select the Weld Type to be Captured. This is done at the Weld Type tab. See Section "2.3.3 The Weld Type Tab" on page *. 5. Select the Weld Settings of the Weld Type. Select the parameters of the Weld Type to be captured. See Section "2.3.4 The Weld Settings Tab" on page *. 6a. Go to the Graphics Files tab and select Capture Enabled. The Capture Enabled button is located under the Video Capture Options. Next, click on the OK button. If there are no welds in the project initially, the Capture Enabled option will need to be chosen. Read the note below and then go to Step 7. 6b. Enable Video Capture from the main menu. Do the following if there were welds in the project initially, or welds are being captured into an existing project. Go to the main menu, and under "Project Options", choose "Enable Capture".
 
* Note for 6a and 6b * If there is an error "Capture Card not detected." then NAMeS could not find a Video For Windows driver for a capture card to use. This can happen for a variety of reasons:
7. Press the Capture Button. Select the Capture button. The Video Capture Window should now be on the screen. Please see Figure 6 on page *.

Note: If the picture is not updating press the preview or overlay button.

* Note * If the video capture card’s driver has crashed, then the video may be distorted or missing. This problem can usually be corrected by rebooting the computer. However, if the problem persists, the driver may need to be reinstalled. These problems have occurred because of a video driver crash:
7. Make sure you have chosen 8, 16 or 24 bit color video format and video size is 640x480. The video mode can be selected using the "Video Display", "Video Format", and "Video Source" buttons. NAMeS will only work with an 8, 16, or 24 bit color format. This color format is independent of the image being displayed on the video monitor. The 640x480 video size will fill up the screen. * Note for Windows NT * 16- bit video capture is not supported in Windows NT.

* Note for video cards supporting Overlay * Video overlay allows the video card to display video directly to the video display, allowing a very smooth picture to be displayed on the monitor. However, Video For Windows will only capture in preview mode. So in order to use overlay mode, preview mode must be supported in the same color format. (16-bit color overlay mode will work with 16-bit color preview mode; however, if 16-bit preview mode is not supported, a black image will be captured.)

8. Adjust the camera and sample so it is in focus and appears inside of the black box.

9. Click the freeze button. When opening up the capture window there will be a button labeled freeze. The freeze mode will freeze the image on the screen. When freeze is selected the button will change and be labeled Preview (or Overlay if overlay is enabled) . The preview/overlay mode will allow you to adjust the image until you get the quality you would like. 10. When done click on capture and type in file name of picture. Now that you have frozen the image click the Capture button. The software will then ask you for a file name for the image. Type in a file name and select Save. To replace an existing image in the project, just choose the same name and choose "Yes" when asked if you want to replace the image (there is no "Undo" option).

Note: For some project types, such as measuring a Frame, the weld image will be automatically named. Any assumed name will be given in the title bar of the window.

11. Measure your Captured Image. The captured image should now be in the Main Window and is ready to be measured.

Figure 6 The Video Capture Window is used to capture weld images into NAMeS



 
 

Freeze Button - This Freeze button freezes the image to be measured.
Capture Button - This captures the image, saves the image, and then brings the image to the main window to be measured (unless the Repeat check box is checked).

Cancel Button - This will cancel the video capture.

Repeat Check Box - If this box is checked, then pressing the Capture button will capture the image, and return to the Capture window to allow multiple images to be captured before returning to the main NAMeS window. To terminate capture, either deselect the Repeat check box and capture a final image, or click on Cancel.

Preview Button - The Preview button activates "Preview" and displays the video preview image in the video window. This allows the user to adjust the image for quality. Previewing will go through about 4 to 15 frames per second (fps) depending on the speed of the computer and video card.

Overlay Button - The Overlay button activates "Overlay" and the video card displays the video from the camera directly into the video window. This allows the user to most easily adjust the image for quality (unless an external monitor is available). Overlay mode will have around 30 frames per second (fps). (If Overlay mode is not supported by the video capture card, then this button will be grayed out.)

Set Box Color Button - Pressing this button brings up a palette window which can be used to change the color of the box that is drawn around the video capture area (Not visible unless the capture area is smaller than the video size). (The box is magenta in Figure 6.)

Set Box Style Button - Pressing this button changes the type of box being drawn around the capture area. (The box is three pixels wide in Figure 6.)

Video Source Button - This will be determined by the video capture driver. Typically this is used to select the type of input the video card is receiving from the camera.

Video Format Button - This will be determined by the video capture driver. Typically this will allow the selection of such video image attributes as "bits-per-pixel" (8, 16, or 24 bit capture).

Video Display Button - This will be determined by your own video capture equipment. Typically this will allow the selection of the size of the video displayed and captured. (Not shown)

Next Driver Button - This button selects the next Video For Windows driver on the computer. This will only work if there is more than one driver. The name of the current driver will be displayed at the top of the Capture Window in the title bar. The most recently selected driver should be remembered by NAMeS between program runs.

Image Size Combo- This combo box allows the desired image size to be selected. It is currently recommended that the "640x480" size be used.

Colors Combo- This combo box allows the choice between capturing a 24 bit color image, 256 color grey-scale image and a 256 color image. The 24 bit color images are recommended. The advantage of the 24 bit color is that the images will be clearer; however, they will be larger than 256 color images.
 
 
 


  2.5 USING EXISTING IMAGES AND DATA
 
 

2.5.1 Organizing Data

If you have existing data or images, organization of directories should precede creating a project.

The simplest way to organize the data is to have a different directory for each project that you create in NAMeS. Then place all of the weld data, and the graphics files in this directory. This keeps the data files and the weld image files together. As long as you do not modify the information under the "Data Directory Location" tab, this will be the default behavior of NAMeS.

A more complex way to organize your data is to create a project directory for each project such as "Fillet Project". Then in that directory create two directories: a graphics directory called "GRAPHICS" for the graphics files, and a data directory called "DATA" in which the .DAT files will be located. The data files will hold information created by measuring the welds with the NAMeS software. See Figure 7 below. This results in every project having its own data and graphics folders specific to that project.

Figure 7 An example file hierarchy.






Note: If the .PCX files or the .DAT files are moved for any reason (this includes renaming directories), the project will need to be recreated.

ADVANCED

The following activities require the manipulation of the .DAT files. Most of the manipulations will take place in the Data Directory Location tab in Section 2.4.2.

2.5.2 Starting with Existing Data

If the welds that are to be characterized have already been measured in the past, the old data files can be reused. To do this, simply place ALL of the data files for the welds into a data directory.

1. Open Windows Explorer from the Start Menu of Windows 95

2. Locate the path of your existing data

3. Select the data files you wish to load into NAMeS

4. Drag and Drop the data files into the data directories you have created

*NOTE *: Due to the possibility of error importing older *.DAT files into a new version of NAMeS, it is HIGHLY recommended that you have a backup copy of all weld data files before allowing NAMeS to modify or use them. **

** WARNING!! READING AND HEEDING THE ABOVE NOTE CAN SAVE MUCH TIME.
 
 

2.5.3 Starting with Existing Weld Images

If there is no capture ability on the computer, or PCX files already exist, then NAMeS can use the existing PCX files. To use existing PCX images, they must be placed on a hard drive to achieve best performance and speed. Simply copy all of the PCX files into a directory NAMeS can access.

To Copying Images to a Graphics Directory:

1. Open Windows Explorer from the Start Menu of Windows 95

2. Locate the path of your existing Images

To do this click on the drive your images are in. This drive could be a hard drive ("C:"), a floppy drive ("A:"), or any other type of removable media (i.e. high capacity floppies, removable hard drives, or high capacity cartridges) After clicking on the drive a list of available directories will be displayed. Next, click on the directory where your images are stored, and a list of available subdirectories will be displayed. Finally, click on thesubdirectory the images are in. This last step should show a list of the images available in this subdirectory. 3. Select the images you wish to load into NAMeS Now is the time to select specific images to put into the NAMeS graphics directories that you have constructed. To do this use the mouse to highlight or select the desired images. 4. Drag and Drop the images into the graphics directories you have created With the mouse use a press and drag movement to place the highlighted images into the NAMeS graphics subdirectories. You have now placed your images into the directories and may move on to Creating a Project.
 
 



 
 

III. USING THE MAIN WINDOW

A basic understanding of the features of the main NAMeS interface is needed before any welds can be measured. There are three basic steps to measuring a weld:

    1. Enter weld dimensions such as plate width and scale length.
    2. Position the plate lines.
    3. Position the weld lines.

Note: There is a separate help file for each weld type. To view this help information, under the main menu choose Help, then Weld Type Specific Help.
 
 
 
 

3.1 SAVING AND RESTORING PROJECTS

When NAMeS starts out, there is just a white box with the text "No weld image was loaded" and "No project has been loaded". To get a weld image into the main window, either create a new project as described in the previous section, or choose Restore Project from the File Menu located at the top of the window. This process is shown in Section "3.1.2 Restoring a Project" below.
 
 

3.1.1 Saving a Project

1. Choose Save Project from the File Menu.

2. Choose the location path where you would like to save the project.

The project file itself should be placed in the easy to find NAMeS directory. If all projects are saved in the same directory they are easy to find. Alternately, if the project is saved in the same directory as the graphics files, it is easier to transfer the project between computers. 3. Name the project. Project files are required to have the extension ".NAM". If that extension is not acceptable, the file will need to be renamed outside of NAMeS. 4. Click on ‘Save’.
 
 

3.1.2 Restoring a Project

1. Choose Restore Project from the File Menu.

2. Choose the location path where you saved your project.

If you forgot to save, the last project started or modified is typically saved in the startup directory under the name "Default.nam". Note: Much of the information in the Project is machine dependent. So transferring a project between machines may not work well unless the .PCX, .DAT, and .NAM files are all placed in directories with identical names to the original computer. If any difficulties are encountered transferring a project, try to recover as described in Section 3.1.3 "Recovering from Changed Directory " or create a new project and follow the instructions in the preceding section.
 
 

3.1.3 Recovering from Changed Directory Names

When restoring a project, if NAMeS is unable to find the project’s graphics or data directory, then it is likely that someone has either moved or renamed the project directories. Your first indication that NAMeS is having trouble opening a project will be a dialog similar to the following one.

Pay attention to which images could not be located on the first error dialog. If the location of these files is unknown, try using the Windows Find program to locate which directory has these images. The location of the save files associated with the images will be needed also.

In the "Please select the new image and data directories" dialog, there is a place to select the graphics and the image directory. The box labeled "Graphics Directory" shows the current graphics directory, as well as a list of all of the images located in that directory. Click the "Browse…" button to change this directory to the directory where your images are found.

If the images and data were in the same directory when the project was last saved, then the "Data Load Directory" box will update as you change the Graphics Directory. If this directory is different, click on the second "Browse…" button to change the directory to where the project data should be loaded from.

If desired, a third directory can be specified by pressing the "Save to Alternate Directory" button. The "Data Save Directory" is where NAMeS will save the .DAT files to as the project is viewed.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

3.1.4 Editing a Project

To edit an existing project, choose Edit Project from the File Menu. This will bring up the "Edit Project" window which can be used to edit the project information. The welds that are in the project, the location to save and load data, the type of weld, and the weld settings can all be modified. See Section "," which begins on page *, for more information.
 



 

3.2 ENTERING WELD DIMENSIONS

Certain measurements of the weld must be entered for the model to provide useful information. One piece of information that any image needs to be useful is a scale. So every model has a place for you to enter the scale of the image. Typically, there are several scaling options given, and the desired option is selected with a check mark. For example, Figure 10 shows a model that can be scaled off of the "Top Thickness" the "Bottom Thickness" or the "Scale Length". Currently the scale length is checked, and a value of 10 is entered. This means that a scale has been added to this image, and a scaling feature is measuring a length of 10 in the image. For more information on what the dimensions represent, go to the Weld Type Specific Help under the Help menu.



Figure 10 Weld dimension edit boxes.







 
 
 

3.3 REVERSING, FLIPPING, AND ROTATING THE WELD IMAGE

If the weld picture is a mirror image from the outline of the weld that appears in the window, then the image needs to be "reversed". To do this, simply click on the bottom Flip button, shown in Figure 11, which is located on the lower left side of the main window. This takes the picture, mirrors it horizontally, and saves it under the same name as the original PCX image. The image can be flipped vertically in the same manner by pressing the other Flip button, the one on top of the two Flip buttons. The Rotate button rotates the image clockwise 90 degrees.

Figure 11 These buttons rotate and flip the weld image. The binoculars bring up the Watch window.

Note: THESE FUNCTIONS OVERWRITE THE WELD IMAGE WITH THE TRANSFORMED IMAGE. Be sure to perform a test rotation with a backed up or unnecessary image to make sure it is compatible with your system before losing data.


 



 

3.4 MEASURING A WELD SET

There are several "points" for measuring both the position of the plates and position of the weld bead relative to the plates. The default look of these points is shown in Figure 12. These points move the lines that describe the weld around. Some dimension measurements are made from the lines the points move, while others are made from the actual position of the points. For more information on point placement and weld dimensions, see the specific help for each weld type. This help can be accessed by choosing Weld Type Specific Help… from the Help menu.
 
 

Figure 12 These are the default points. The red point is the selected point.




3.4.1 Switching Modes

The plate points are moved in Plate Mode, while the weld bead points are moved in the Weld Mode. Plate Mode may be entered by selecting Measure Plates from the Options Menu, or by clicking on the Plate button shown in Figure 13. Weld Mode may be entered by choosing Measure Weld from the Options Menu, or by clicking on the button labeled Weld located near the bottom of the main window. Net Mode allows NAMeS to display neural network predictions of the weld shape on top of the original weld image. Net Mode may be entered by choosing View Net Predicted Weld from the Options Menu, or by clicking on the button labeled Net.

Figure 13 These buttons change between the three measuring modes.






3.4.2 Switching Points

To choose a specific point use the plus and minus buttons located in the arrow pad (see Figure 14). The plus sign will go to the next point, whereas the minus sign will go to the previous point. In addition, by left-clicking on a point, that point will be chosen. In the upper right corner of the screen is an information box. This box tells the user the name of the image that is displayed, the type of weld it is, and the point that is selected. For a more detailed description of the point, select Point Descriptions from the Special WindowsMenu.
 
 


Figure 14 The "+" and "-" buttons switch between points. The arrow pad moves the currently selected point in the direction the button points.

Another way to change points is using the robot arm buttons. Clicking a robot arm shown in will grab the point so that where ever you click with the mouse next the point will try to go there. The "+" robot arm will grab the next point, and the "-" robot arm will try to grab the previous point.
 
 
 
 

3.4.3 Moving a Point

There is an arrow pad in the bottom left corner of the main window (see Figure 14). The inner arrows will move one point at a time. Whereas, the outer arrows will jump several points at once. The arrow that is pressed is the direction the point will move.

There are three (four) methods to moving points:

  1. Click on the point with the left mouse button. Hold down the button to "drag" the point around. Release the button when the point is where it should be.
  2. The number pad to the right of the main keyboard. Pressing "8,4,6,and 2" as the arrow keys. Holding the "Ctrl" key while using the number-pad is the same as using the outer arrows.
  3. Using the arrow pad in the window with the mouse. This method may be less accurate at times.
  4. You can also grab the point with the mouse using the robot arm buttons discussed in the previous section. (If the point is off the screen, you can also right click in the main menu to bring up the pop-up menu and choose "Grab Point…". See Section "3.7.3 Using the Main Pop-Up Menu" for more information.)
* The "Animation" option shows the weld changing smoothly when using the outer arrow keys. The program goes much faster on most computers with this option off. Animation is described further in Section "3.7.5.2 Other Options."
 
 
 
 
 
 

3.4.4 Switching Special Modes and Choosing "No Weld"

Many of the welds have a special button to choose between two types of possible weld bead shapes. For example, in a lead battery resistance weld model, there is either one pool or two pools of molten lead (there is actually a ring of molten lead, but it looks like two pools in the cross section). A button labeled One Pool or Two Pools is used to switch between the two bead shapes.

Most weld types have a No Weld button on the right side of the screen. This button should be pressed for a weld that has turned out so poorly that it is immeasurable. When No Weld is selected, a message is placed on the weld image that says "THIS IS A BAD WELD." When this weld is used to generate a set of weld measurements, all of the measurements will be -999.

* Note * Even bad welds need to be measured and placed in the neural network model sometimes.
 
 
 
 
 
 

3.4.5 Selectively Displaying Weld Lines

Many weld types have the ability to toggle whether the weld bead outline and the plate outline is drawn or not. In the upper right corner of the main window are six weld line buttons which allow the user to manipulate various measurement modes.

Figure 16 The toggle outline buttons choose which lines are drawn.

The far left button controls the plate lines. By pressing this button the plate lines will disappear. When you press it again the plate lines will appear. The next button will allow the user to control the weld outline using the same process. The third and fourth buttons will be used for some weld types to toggle various measurements. For example, a battery resistance weld will use those two buttons to toggle the tangents to the weld bead at the edges of the weld bead. The fifth button will control any special measurement. The far right button controls the points that allow the user to measure the weld.

Note: Although these buttons are visible, each button does not necessarily do something for each weld type. Some models do hide the unused buttons.

Note: In the Universal Zoom Window the X,C,V,B,N, and M keys toggle these setting independently of the main window.
 
 
 
 

3.4.6 Using Zoom Windows

Some of the welds have special zoom windows that open to aide in positioning points. The zoom windows will contain the portion of the window shown inside the blue zoom box. This box is moved by dragging the upper left corner of the box, and is resized by using the lower right corner. When moving a point in the zoom box the arrow pad cannot be used. Use the mouse or keyboard. When clicking on a point in a zoom window the window may disappear. To prevent this, choose Always Open from the Zoom window Options Menu, or the Main windows Special Windows Menu. To re-scale the zoom window, select Scale from the Zoom window Options menu and then choose which scale is needed. To keep the zoom windows closed, choose the Keep Z-Windows Closed option from the Special Windows Menu.

* Note * It is recommended for most cases that the Keep Z-Windows Closed option be used, and the Universal Zoom be used instead. See Section "3.7.1 Using the Universal Zoom Window" for more information.
 
 
 
 

3.4.7 Saving and Loading Weld Data

Once a weld has been measured, the data needs to be saved. Switching to a new weld or quitting the program AUTOMATICALLY SAVES your weld data under the same filename as the weld image, but with a .DAT extension. If a save needs to be done in the middle of measuring, say before a questionable change to the weld shape, the Save Weld Data option from the File Menu or Ctrl+S will save the information. If a mistake is made while measuring, the Load Weld Data option from the File Menu or Ctrl+L will restore the last saved .DAT file.
 
 
 
 

3.4.8 Switching Welds

To switch to the next weld in a project, click on the Next Weld button in the middle bottom of the main window or press the Page Up key. To switch to the previous weld in a project, click the Last Weld button or press the Page Down key. These buttons are shown in Figure 17. The box in the upper-right corner of the screen will show which weld is currently being measured. The Arrows buttons on either side of the Last Weld and Next Weld buttons skip ten welds at a time. Another way to do this is by using CTRL-Page Up and CTRL-Page Down.

Figure 17 The Weld Buttons switch between welds in the project.

3.4.9 Making Notes About a Weld

It is possible to save a note about a weld in the weld’s data file. To open and close the Weld Note window, press the weld note button shown below. This note will be available when the weld is reopened in NAMeS. Also, a list of all of the weld notes can be written to a file by choosing Export or Import Data Files… from the Project Options menu. Then choose to Output Weld Notes.

Figure 18 The Weld Note box is a convinient place to make short reminders for a weld.




3.4.10 Renaming a Weld

The name of a weld can be changed in NAMeS. This could be useful if an error is made when entering the name of a weld. This will attempt to rename the image file, and the data file. If an error is encountered, such as a read-only file, then the name will not be changed. To rename a file, go to the Options menu, choose Rename Weld…, and then type in a new name for the file. Note: The file can not be renamed until the data file has been saved at least once.
 



 
 

3.5 Using the Custom Dimension Control

The Custom Dimension Window allows the physical dimensions defined by the current weld template to be viewed. Unlike the "Watch" window discussed in the next section, the Custom Dimension Window allows the description of each dimension to be customized. To get to this box select Special Dimension Control from the View Menu of the main window. The Custom Dimension Control is shown in Figure 19.

To access the advanced controls shown, Right-Click and choose Edit Control Mode… The box will hold up to six dimensions at one time. The Add button will add a dimension to the end of the list. The Remove button will delete the currently highlighted dimension. The Move Up and Move Down buttons move the selected dimension up or down in the list, allowing the dimensions to be rearranged. The Edit button edits the selected dimension using the same interface as adding dimension described below. The Edit Title button allows the title of the dialog and the column headers to be renamed; for example, here the title "Custom Dimension Dialog" could be renamed to "Useful Fillet Dimensions".


Figure 19 The Custom Dimension Control showing the advanced controls.

Adding a Dimension

To Add a dimension to the list, you can either click on Add in the advanced controls, or you can Right-Click and choose Add Dimension… from the pop-up menu. This will bring up the dialog shown in Figure 20. You select the desired dimension in the NAMeS Name combo box. This name is the name that the template uses to identify the dimension. The Custom Name box is the name that will be shown in the Custom Dimension Control. Type any name into this box, or click on the arrow to use the NAMeS name. Once you are finished choosing a dimension and name, click OK.


Figure 20 This dialog is used to add and edit the dimensions in the Custom Dimension Control.

Editing a Dimension

To edit a dimension, double-click on it in the list, or right-click and choose Edit Selection from the pop-up menu. You then edit the dimension using the interface shown in Figure 20 and described above.

Removing a Dimension

Once you no longer need a dimension, you can delete it from the list in one of two ways. Highlight the dimension, right-click, then choose Remove Dimension… from the pop-up menu. Also, you can bring up the advanced controls and just press the Remove button.

Saving and Restoring Custom Dimensions

Once you have set up your custom dimensions, you can save the list of dimensions to disk. Simply do a right-click and choose Save Dimension Settings… from the pop-up menu. Here you choose a NCD (Names Custom Dimensions) file to save your list of dimensions in. I recommend choosing a name that contains both the weld type and a descriptions of the dimensions such as "Fillet Weld SPC Dimensions.NCD". This is a good idea because the dimensions that you choose in the fillet weld model will not match up with the same dimensions in any other model.

To restore the dimensions at a later date, first open the custom dimension dialog like normal. Choose Restore Dimension Settings… from the pop-up menu. Then find your save file and click the Open button.
 
 

*NOTE* The current custom dimensions will be saved into a NAMeS save file (.NAM) whenever you save your project. So you do not need to save and restore your dimension settings manually unless you wish to use them in different projects.
 
 



 

3.6 USING THE WELD DIMENSION BOX

The Weld Dimension Box allows the user to view the physical measurements as defined by the current weld profile. To get to this box select Watches from the Special Windows Menu of the main window. (Or press the binoculars button shown in Figure 11 on page *.) The dimension watch window is shown in Figure 21. This option gives the user the opportunity to view specific dimensions while measuring the weld bead. The box will hold up to six dimensions at one time. Some dimensions are not defined all of the time; for example, the width of penetration of a weld that doesn’t penetrate into the plate. Undefined measurements may be set 0.0 if that is reasonable, others will be given the value of -999.0 to show that they are not defined. Any dimension that is not defined for the given weld settings (See Section "2.3.4 The Weld Settings Tab") will be set to -999.0. For example, the reinforcement angle will be -999.0 if the "Measure Reinforcement Angle?" is answered NO.
 
 

Figure 21 The Weld Dimension Box displays selected dimensions as the weld is measured.




To select a dimension press the Change button. Pressing the arrow button to the right of the box in the next window (Figure 22) in will display a list of the possible dimensions. Scroll through the available dimensions and select the desired dimension. Pressing up and down while the box is selected will switch between dimensions also.

Figure 22 This window is used to choose which dimension to watch.

NOTE Starting in NAMeS version 1.6xx, the "Custom Dimension Control" can be used instead of the weld dimension window.
 



 

3.7 ADVANCED MEASURING FEATURES

There are features which have been added to make measuring welds faster and easier. These include the Universal Zoom window, the Point Description window, the Pop-Up Menu, and the Quick Place mode (this name is likely to change soon).
 
 

3.7.1 Using the Universal Zoom Window

The Universal Zoom Window zooms in on a portion of the weld image, and can be a great aide in positioning points. To open the Universal Zoom Window, choose Universal Zoom Window from the Special Windows menu. The Universal Zoom centers on wherever the left mouse button is clicked on the main weld image. It also centers on a point as it is moved around the main window. Points can also be moved in the Universal Zoom window, simply click on the point in the window and drag it just as in the main window. The actual Universal Zoom Window is moved just as any other window, and re-sizing the window changes the size of the zoomed image inside the window. When moving a point in the zoom box the arrow pad cannot be used; however, the number-pad on the keyboard will move points (if keyboard support is included in the weld model). To re-scale the zoom window, select Scale from the Options menu and then choose which scale is needed. To close the Universal Zoom Window, click on the "X" in the upper right corner of the window, or choose Universal Zoom Window option from the Special Windows Menu a second time.

Note: Clicking with the right button on the edges of the Universal Zoom Window will move the picture to center on that point.

* Note * It is recommended for most cases that the Keep Z-Windows Closed option be used, and the Universal Zoom be used instead. See Section "3.7.1 Using the Universal Zoom Window" for more information.

Figure 23 The Universal Zoom Window zooms in on the weld image.


 
 

3.7.2 Using the Point Description Window

The Point Description Window, shown in Figure 24, gives a description of where to place the point on the weld profile, and shows an example profile with the bead placed correctly. To bring up the Point Description Window, choose Point Description from the Special Windows menu. When the window opens, it will have a description of where to place the current point. Below the description are three buttons: Weld View, Plate Outline, and Weld Outline. The Weld View button opens and closes a picture of the weld that will appear below the buttons. This weld picture shows a generic picture of the weld, and in some weld models will show a picture of the weld that reflects the shape of the current weld. The Plate Outline button activates Quick Placement Mode for the plate points. The Weld Outline button activates Quick Placement Mode for the weld points. For more information on the Quick Placement Mode, read Section "3.7.4 Using the Quick Placement Mode."
 
 

Figure 24 The Point Description Window helps learn where to place the points.






3.7.3 Using the Main Pop-Up Menu

If the right mouse button is clicked inside of the main NAMeS window, a "Pop-Up Menu" will appear with a list of commonly used menu options. Each of these options is discussed below, but not in the order they appear on the menu.
 
 
 
 

Quick Place Plates

Quick Place Plates activates Quick Placement Mode for the plate points. For more information on the Quick Placement Mode, read Section "3.7.4 Using the Quick Placement Mode."

Quick Place Weld

Quick Place Weld activates Quick Placement Mode for the weld points. For more information on the Quick Placement Mode, read Section "3.7.4 Using the Quick Placement Mode."

Terminate Quick Placement

Terminate Quick Placement deactivates Quick Placement Mode.

Reset All Points

Reset All Points moves all of the points to the original position for the points when the weld model was first selected. This is useful if a point gets moved off the weld area, or the previously measured weld was very oddly shaped and the default shape is closer to the shape of the current weld to be measured.

Reset Point Position

Reset Point Position places a point at a new position based on the current weld profile. For example, in the lap weld model, point 7 (the point that describes the shape of the weld in the gap) will be moved to the exact center of points 2 and 3 (the points on the plate surfaces that form the gap). This is useful if there is no gap because point 7 will be placed exactly where it belongs. Not every point can be reset. For more information on the lap weld model and other models, see the individual weld help discussed in Section "3.4 MEASURING A WELD SET."

Select Point…

Select Point can be used to set the currently selected point to any point. After choosing the Select Point option, the window shown in Figure 25 will open up asking for a point number. After typing in the point number, make sure that the desired mode is selected by the radio buttons. In Figure 25, weld mode is selected (see Section "3.4.1 Switching Modes" for more information on measuring modes). If the entered point does not exist or can not be selected, a message will be displayed saying, "Unable to Select Point."

Figure 25 The Point Selection window is used to choose any point.

Grab Point…

Grab Point first brings up the window shown in Figure 25. Now select a point as discussed above. Now push down the left button on the weld image where the selected point should be placed. To drag the point, hold the left button down and move the mouse. Release the mouse button to stop dragging the point.
 
 

3.7.4 Using the Quick Placement Mode

The "Quick Placement Mode" can substantially speed up measuring welds. Once Quick Placement Mode is started, each point is grabbed automatically and placed where the left button is clicked on the weld image. As soon as the left button is released, the next point is chosen and placed where the left button is clicked. This continues until all of the points have been placed.

There are two sets of points to be placed, the weld points and the plate points. To start placement of one of the sets of points, first click on the "Plate Outline" or "Weld Outline" buttons on the Point Description Window (see Section "3.7.2 Using the Point Description Window") or from the Pop-Up menu choose Quick Place Plates or Quick Place Weld. If the Status Bar is present at the bottom of the window, (Status Bar on the View menu will activate the Status Bar if it is not active.) the current point being grabbed will be displayed in a pane on the right side of the Status Bar. For a weld picture and description showing where the current point is to be placed, bring up the Point Description Window discussed in Section "3.7.2 Using the Point Description Window."

* Note * Not all weld types currently support Quick Placement Mode.
 
 
 
 

3.7.5 Using the Special Display Options

The Special Display Options may be used to show point descriptions, weld dimensions, set point repeat rates, and change line and point colors. This window will only open when a project is open. To get to the Special Display Options window, choose Special Display Options from the Options Menu. This window is shown in Error! Reference source not found. below. There are two tabs; Set Special Point Options tab and Choose Point Shape and Color tab. Figure 27 shows the Special Point Options Tab.

Figure 26 The Special Display Options Window has many controls on one screen.

3.7.5.1 Choosing New Repeat Rates

The repeat rate is the number of milliseconds between clicks when buttons on the arrow pad are held down on the main window. For example, the default repeat rate of 100 translates to 100 milliseconds between clicks, or 10 clicks per second. With faster repeat rates, a smaller number, there may be insufficient time to move the point and redraw the weld before the next click. This results in a repeat rate slower than the one specified. The Fast Move Repeat Rate is the repeat rate for the outside arrows on the arrow pad. The Fast Move Velocity is the number of pixels that are moved when the outer arrows, or the Arrow keys with Control are pressed.

3.7.5.2 Other Options

There are other options available from the Choose Special Display Options window. A brief description of each follows:

3.7.5.3 Choosing Point Shape and Color

Clicking on the second tab labeled Choose Point Shape and Color Tab brings up a list of all available point shapes and line colors. This is shown below in Figure 27.

Figure 27 The Choose Point Shape and Color Tab customizes the point style and colors.

Each point is composed of four different patterns, each drawn over the other. To create a custom shape, simply click on a shape in each of the four Point Boxes located in the gray bars. To deactivate a point box, click on the empty space at the left side of the Point Box. There are two point types: the point that is currently selected, on the right of the box, and all the other points, shown on the left of the box. It is recommended that these be of greatly different coloring so they are easily distinguished from each other.

To change the color of a point, click on the Color Boxes at the right of the Point Box. The top of the box is the common color, the bottom of the box is the current color. To open the Color Window click on the color box you wish to change. The Color Window is shown below in Figure 28. When the window opens select the desired point color, and press OK. To choose a color that is not in the default colors, click on the Define Custom Colors button. Move the mouse about the square to choose the color You may also use the arrow on the right to choose the brightness of the color. In 256 color mode, the color may not be available, and the closest color will be chosen. This color is shown on the left side of the Color | Solid box which appears after pushing the custom colors button.

Figure 28 The Color Dialog is used to choose a color, press the Define Custom Colors button to choose a color not already shown.

The user may also select colors for the plate lines, weld lines, frame boxes, tab colors, and other special colors. These various lines may be selected in the Choose Point Shape and Color screen from the Choose Special Display Options Window. Select the color box next to the line color you wish to change. Choose the color as described above.


 



 
 
 

IV. USING WELD IMAGES IN NAMES

It is recommended that weld images for NAMeS be 24 bit color images saved in PNG or BMP format. Jpeg images, and 256 color formats are supported, but generally produce lower quality images. The view space in current versions of NAMeS is 640 (horizontal) by 480 (vertical) pixels; however, larger pictures can be used in NAMeS if you can set up a large enough desktop to view them! If your images are larger than your desktop settings will support, images will be clipped to the maximum viewable size before being displayed.

The information that needs to be present in each photograph and scanned image is fairly straightforward, but will vary between different welds:

** NOTE** Some of the weld types have a feature that is REQUIRED to be the scale. The help for the weld type should be consulted before scanning or capturing the weld images.
 
 
 
 

4.1 HOW THE TRUE IMAGE SCALE IS DETERMINED BY NAMeS

The scale for each weld can vary greatly between images. If a simple camera is used to capture the weld images, the scale will change drastically depending on the type of lens and the focal length; how far is the object from the camera. For many weld types, a scaling feature such as a known plate thickness can be used to scale the images. The plate thickness would then be compared against the actual number of pixels that represent that thickness on the screen, resulting in a scaling factor such as 134 pixels : 1 mm.
 
 
 
 

4.2 SCALING FROM FEATURES ADDED TO AN IMAGE

Some welds do not have a feature that can be used as a known length, for these welds more complex methods of scaling can be used. The easiest way to find the size of an image from a microscope is to use the magnification of the picture. If the same magnification is used for every image, it is easy to calculate the actual scale of an image. Unfortunately, once that image is fed into a computer, it is not clear how this scale relates to the weld image.

What is needed is some object of known length in the image, so that the true length of the object can be compared to the apparent length of the object in the weld image.

These methods WILL ONLY WORK if the weld model has a FREE FLOATING SCALE that can be moved independently of where the weld is. Examine individual weld help to see if a particular weld supports using a free floating scale. This added scale set in the weld settings by the question "Scale off added scale?"

Scaling Method 1:

The most commonly used scaling method currently is to place a ruler or item of known length on top of the weld cross-section while the picture of the weld is taken. It is important that the scale be as close to the same plane as the weld cross-section plane, so a thin scale would be better than a thick scale.

Scaling Method 2:

One method of scaling photomicrographs of a known magnification is to scan in the photomicrograph with one edge in the scanned image, and then use that edge as the scaling feature. The edge can be measured, with a ruler, and converted to the length of that edge in the sample dimensions. For example, consider a magnification of 6 times, when the edge of the photomicrograph is 3 inches long. The scale length is then (3 in)*(1/6) = .5 in.

Scaling Method 3:

An error prone method would be to use a stage micrometer. A stage micrometer is a device that has graduations of known length marked on its surface. If a photomicrograph of the stage micrometer is taken under the same conditions, same lenses and plane of focus, as those used to photograph the weld images, then this photomicrograph can be used to accurately determine the magnification of the micrographs. This could be used in NAMeS by naming the stage micrometer image 1.pcx so it will be first, and then setting the scale line of the weld model to line up with the stage micrometer, ignoring the other weld points. Once the scale points have been placed, NEVER MOVE THEM, and use that scale length for all of the weld images. This is never recommended and should not be attempted with a V-Tec system.
 
 



 
 

Appendix A: Answers to frequently asked questions

Q: I measured my whole project, but when I opened it all the weld outlines seemed to be shifted around.

A: Most likely you have not properly set up your graphics and data directories when you created your project. Perhaps all of your data is being saved into the same directory so that other projects you have measured are overwriting data. Make sure that you have a separate directory for each project, and ensure that you data directories match your graphics directory. (See section "2.3 CREATING A PROJECT" for more information.)
 
 

Q: I received the message "Error reading xxx header: XXX", "X:\Directory\Myfile.xxx is not a xxx file or file does not exist!" (xxx is your file type, such as pcx, bmp, or png, XXX will be the cause of the problem).

A: Depends on the cause (XXX):

Q: I have measured all of my weld images, but all of the information seems to be lost.

A1: You probably changed your Save and Load Directories to be different places. NAMeS would then be saving your information to one directory, and attempting to load from another. To check this, go to the "File" menu and choose "Edit Project". Then click on the "Data Directory Location" tab. Make sure that "Current Save Directory" and the "Current Load Directory" are the same.

A2: You also could have moved or changed your data directory or data files (*.dat). Replace the files, or recreate your project, and make sure that the "Load Data Directory" contains .DAT files that have the same names as the .PCX files you choose in the "Graphics Directory".
 
 

Q: Why do I get the message "Capture Card not detected" when I click on the Capture Enabled box in the Project Control window?

A: Do you have a video capture card? If not, Video Capture Mode can not be Enabled.

If you have a capture card, make sure that it is installed correctly using any included installation programs. See Section "2.4 Using Video Capture in NAMeS" starting on page * for more information.
 
 

Q: Why is it so hard to transfer projects between computers?

A: There hasn’t been time to improve the process. Later versions of NAMeS will (hopefully) be improved greatly in this area, and in project creation. For now, just try to place all of the files in directories with identical names on both computers. Make sure you remember all of the .PCX, the .DAT, and the .NAM files. For more information, see section "3.1.3 Recovering from Changed Directory Names."